I was shocked and saddened to hear of the sudden and unexpected death of actor Heath Ledger. As fate would have it, I had watched his movie, “Candy” on the weekend prior to his death. Candy is the sad story of a young Australian couple who get involved in the drug culture, begin shooting heroin, and end up as junkies, prostituting themselves to afford their habits.
While the cause of Heath’s death is not yet known, a drug overdose is suspected and autopsy results will not be available for up to two weeks. A coworker asked me why the results would take so long, and what’s involved in an autopsy. I found a good article on the subject and will excerpt it here:
- Before the actual autopsy, as much information as possible is gathered about the person who died and the events that led to the death. Other information may be gathered by investigating the area where the person died, and studying the circumstances surrounding the death.
- Procedures done during the autopsy may vary depending on the circumstances surrounding the death, whether the medical examiner or coroner is involved, and what specific issues are being evaluated during the autopsy.
- The autopsy begins with a careful examination of the external part of the body. Photographs may be taken of the entire body and of specific body parts. X-rays may be taken to evaluate skeletal or other abnormalities, confirm injuries, locate bullets or other objects, or to help establish identity. The body is weighed and measured. Clothing and valuables are identified and recorded. The location and description of identifying marks, such as scars, tattoos, birthmarks, and other significant findings (injuries, wounds, bruises, cuts), are recorded on a body diagram.
- A complete internal examination includes removal of and dissection of the chest, abdominal, and pelvic organs and the brain. The examination of the trunk requires an incision from the chest to the abdomen. The removal of the brain requires an incision over the top of the head. The body organs are examined before removal, then removed and examined in detail.
- In some cases, organs may be placed in a preservative called formalin for days to weeks prior to dissection. This is particularly important in the examination of the brain for certain types of diseases or injuries. Tissue samples are taken from some or all of the organs for examination under a microscope.
- Completion of the autopsy may require examination of tissues under a microscope, further investigation of the circumstances of death, or specialized tests (such as genetic or toxicology tests). The tests performed may vary based on the findings at the autopsy dissection, the circumstances of death, the questions asked about the death, and the condition of the tissues and body fluids obtained at autopsy. A written report describes the autopsy findings. This report may address the cause of death and may help answer any questions from the deceased person’s doctor and family.
So it makes sense that autopsy results take as long as they do. A thorough investigation requires everything from documenting items from the scene of the death, to a careful analysis of blood toxins, to preserving tissues in formalin before viewing them under a microscope. All of the clues must be carefully weighed (Is there any evidence of a heart attack? Was there a blot clot in the lungs? Was there a brain hemorrhage?) to get the full picture and to be sure of the exact cause of death. All things considered, it’s amazing that the pathologists can render an opinion so quickly.
My heart goes out to Heath’s family as they await closure on the cause of his death.
.This post originally appeared on Dr. Val’s blog at RevolutionHealth.com.